Law is a set of rules enforceable by social institutions. It has also been defined as the “art of justice.” In the United States, law is enforced by judges, legislators, and courts. This set of rules can be created by private individuals or by the government. Some legal issues are common, such as housing, immigration, and consumer rights. Using a lawyer can help you resolve these issues.
The study of law is important to understanding how society works. Legal issues may arise from problems at work, in the home, or from sudden events. You can find information about legal matters on government websites.
There are three main categories of law: civil law, criminal law, and commercial law. Each of these areas has different requirements and judicial decisions. Civil law systems are generally less complicated. Common legal issues involve disputes with money, housing, immigration, and consumer rights. Typically, there are two levels of court, a trial court and a court of appeals. Both of these courts can make a decision, but it is usually up to the appellate court to decide if a lower court made a bad decision.
Criminal law is the law that addresses crimes that are governed by a criminal statute. For example, a felony is a crime that is punishable by more than a year in prison. An indictment is a formal charge issued by a grand jury. Generally, a defendant will be asked to plead guilty or not guilty.
Commercial law deals with contracts and property. Personal property, which includes intangible rights, is covered under both commercial and personal property laws. Other forms of property law include land and covenants, and real estate.
A contract is a legally binding agreement between two or more people. A plaintiff files a complaint stating the wrongs allegedly committed by the defendant. If the case is resolved, the judge will issue a judgment, which determines the rights of the parties in the case.
Evidence is the physical or written testimony and documents used in a court. Exhibits can be photographs, weapons, or other objects. Although evidence can be admissible in a court, the fact finder will decide whether it is relevant to the case.
Courts can review a new interpretation of a law. They may also declare a law unconstitutional. Unconstitutional laws can be struck down by the court. Alternatively, they can be changed by the parties or a higher court.
In common law legal systems, the doctrine of precedent holds that the court’s decisions bind future cases. Usually, a higher court’s decisions bind lower courts. However, parties can challenge a precedent, especially if it was made under a unique legal circumstance.
Law also influences the economy, politics, and history of the country. In addition to these basic aspects, the study of law often raises questions about the morality of the laws. These debates can center around how judges feel about the right and wrong of a particular situation, as well as their sense of right and wrong.